This technique refers to directly withdrawing sperm from the testicle or epididymis for use in an IVF cycle. IVF and ICSI must be used since this sperm is immature and immotile.

The indications for this procedure include men who do not ejaculate sperm (azoospermia).

For the following reasons:

  1. Obstructive azoospermia
  2. Vasectomy
  3. Absence of the vas deferens
  4. Refractile retrograde ejaculation ( reverse ejaculation into the bladder)
  5. Non-obstructive azoospermia
  6. Klinefelter’s syndrome
  7. Y chromosome microdeletions
  8. Other chromosomal abnormalities
  9. Hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism

The approach and success rates vary according to the diagnoses.  You can learn more about male fertility from here.