The first baby from In vitro fertilization (IVF) was born in 1978. IVF was invented for women who had blocked tubes where the sperm and egg could not meet in the body and so had to meet in a dish in the lab. Originally, IVF success rates were in the single digits—much lower than the success rates we see today.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was invented in 1993 and it revolutionized male infertility. Prior to ICSI, men with poor sperm parameters required donor sperm to conceive. ICSI involves injecting a single sperm directly into a single egg; so men who have few sperm, poorly swimming or shaped sperm, or immature sperm retrieved from the testicle can conceive with IVF and ICSI.
Today, common indications for IVF +/- ICSI include:
- Low ovarian reserve/egg number
- Blocked fallopian tubes
- Severe endometriosis
- Long duration of infertility (3+ years)
- Failed conservative treatments such as Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)
- Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for single gene disorders
- Donor eggs
- Gestational surrogacy/carriers—for individuals/couples who do not have a uterus or cannot carry
- Preimplantation genetic screening for chromosomal abnormalities in embryos
Today, embryo freezing and/or egg freezing can also preserve fertility for later or help in family planning.
Learn more about the IVF process and how you can start planning your family with Genesis Fertility Centre. Sometimes, a second opinion is all you need.